Alcohol-based hand sanitisers
Commercially available liquid- and gel-based ABHRs hereafter ‘off the shelf’ were purchased from stores or sampled from hand sanitising points at public places (schools, offices, shopping malls, restaurants, places of worship) in and around Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Another set of ABHRs that were made based on WHO recommendations for hand rubs using locally available ingredients at home by persons or in the laboratory for the daily use of personnel (hereafter referred to as ‘homemade’) were solicited from and provided by volunteers. The ABHRs were sampled directly from the container (in the case of those purchased) or collected in 1.5-mL sterile Eppendorf tubes. Overall, 50 ABHR products were analysed, of which 38 were liquids, 11 were gels and 1 was a spray-based formulation.
Gas chromatographic analysis of alcohols in ABHRs
For the analysis, a 6890 Agilent gas chromatograph fitted with a flame ionisation detector and an Agilent HP-INNOWax polyethylene glycol (model number Agilent 19091N-102) column (25 m × 200 µm × 0.20 µm) was used. Samples were injected in the split mode with a split ratio of 30:1 at 140 °C and a pressure of 24.14 psi. The temperature of the flame ionisation detector was set at 200 °C, the flow rates for hydrogen, air and nitrogen were set at 40, 150 and 25 mL/min, respectively, and that of the carrier gas helium was set at 1.4 mL/min. The oven was programmed as follows: 35 °C for 1 min, increased by 5 ° per min to 40 °C, held for 1 min ramped at 15 °C to 75 °C with a 1 min hold and finally increased at 25 °C per min to 220 °C. To validate the method, a mixture of seven alcohols containing methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, pentanol, isobutanol, butanol and octanol was analysed. Thereafter, 1 µL of each ABHR was analysed on the gas chromatograph and the alcohol content quantified using an external calibration curve made up of either ethanol or isopropanol (the two main alcohols recommended by the WHO for use in ABHRs) in the range of 10–100% (v/v). The concentration of either ethanol or isopropanol was determined using the equation of the trend line , The equation of the trend line y=mx+c, where y = measured peak intensity of alcohol, m = gradient, x = unknown concentration of alcohol and c = intercept. As a reference and quality control standard check, a 91% ethanol standard was analysed with each batch of samples. All samples were analysed in duplicate and the composition of alcohols presented as mean proportions ± standard errors. Comparisons between ABHR formulation types and sources were made using a chi-square (X2 ) test of proportions using the Proc FREQ command in the statistical software SAS version 9.4 (SAS Inc, USA).
Article TitleDetermination of alcohols in hand sanitisers: Are off-the-shelf hand sanitisers what they claim to be?
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 – the causative agent of COVID-19 – can be prevented through nonpharmaceutical interventions such as observing proper hand hygiene using alcohol-based hand rubs/sanitisers (ABHRs) as recommended by the WHO and local health authorities. However, this recommendation has led to high demand for ABHRs and proliferation of sub-standard products, which do not contain the recommended amount of alcohol. Fifty products of different origins and formulations obtained off-the-shelf and in public places in and around Pretoria (South Africa) were analysed for their alcohol content using gas chromatography. Ethanol was the most common alcohol used in the products, followed by isopropanol. Only 21 (42%) of the products analysed contained at least 70% alcohol; of these only 14 (28%) met the WHO recommended 80±5% alcohol content to have a virucidal effect on SARS-CoV-2. Of the 41 commercial off-the-shelf products analysed, 27 (66%) contained less than 70% alcohol in comparison to 13% of homemade products. Only 18% of gel products contained 70% alcohol, compared with 47% for liquid-based products. Most of the products did not contain the appropriate or correct declaration as recommended by the South African National Standards (SANS 289 and 490). The proliferation of substandard ABHRs is of great public health concern and calls for stricter regulations and enforcement in order to protect consumers, their rights and well-being during and post the COVID-19 pandemic period. However, in the interim, formulation of ABHRs using the WHO guidelines should be mandatory, as such formulations, when made correctly, do have the required virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2.